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Diabetes/ Pre-Diabetes/ Blood sugar issues

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder an a life-long disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. It can be too little insulin, resistance to insulin or both.

Pre-diabetes is a condition that occurs before the onset of type 2 diabetes.  Diabetes researchers believe that during the pre-diabeteic period, significant damage is already happening within the body.  They estimate that by the time a person is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, their pancreas has lost up to 80% of its ability to produce insulin.  Certain biomarkers in blood can help identify the stage a person is in. Primary line of therapy is lifestyle changes-- specifically weight loss, when visceral adiposity (fat in the midsection) is present, and physical activity. 


Below are some symptoms that could be related to blood sugar issues:

- Difficulty losing weight

- Craves sweet 

- Irritable if meals are missed

- Eating relieves fatigue or fatigue after eating (hypoglycemia vs. peripheral utilization of glucose)

- Feel jittery, shaky or have slight tremors

- Poor memory

- Blurred vision

- Waist girth larger than hip

- Frequent thirst and urination


Hgb A1c- Indicator of blood glucose over the previous 2-3 months. In diabetics, high A1c are strongly associated with increased risk of diabetic complications.

Normal < 5.7 percent

Pre-diabetic 5.7 to 6.4 percent

Diabetic 6.5 percent and above


Insulin- Insulin is a hormone that allows blood sugar to be utilized by muscle, liver and fat cells throughout the body. In non-diabetic persons, elevated fasting insulin can facilitate diagnosis of insulin resistance, which predisposes a person to cardiovascular disease, stroke and diabetes. Insulin levels can be elevated for two reasons: the body is de-sensitized to the aciton of insulin (insulin resistance), or blood sugar levels are high enough to warrant excess release of insulin in order to process the glucose in the bloodstream which ultimately results in an inability to produce insulin. 

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